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Primary Prevention of CVD: Treating Dyslipidemia

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - May 15, 2011, Volume 83, Number 10
Número: 2871 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 18:19

Dyslipidemia, defined as elevated total or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The incidence of dyslipidemia is high: In 2000, approximately 25 percent of adults in the United States had total cholesterol greater than 239.4 mg per dL (6.20 mmol per L) or were taking lipid-lowering medication.

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Primary Insomnia in Older Persons

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - February 15, 2013, Volume 87, Number 4
Número: 2870 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 18:16

Up to 40 percent of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty falling asleep, early awakening, or feeling tired on awakening. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include medical and psychiatric illnesses, psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal.

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Bacterial Conjunctivitis

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - September 15, 2010, Volume 82, Number 6
Número: 2869 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 18:13

Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.

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Diabetes: Treating Hypertension

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - April 15, 2013, Volume 87, Number 8
Número: 2868 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 18:10

Among persons with diabetes, about 40 percent of those aged 45 years, and more than 60 percent of those 75 years and older, will have a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg. Major cardiac events occur in approximately 5 percent of persons with diabetes and untreated hypertension each year, and the risk is higher in those with other risk factors, such as diabetic nephropathy.

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Kidney Stones

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - March 15, 2013, Volume 87, Number 6
Número: 2867 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 18:08

Kidney stones develop when crystals separate from the urine and aggregate within the kidney papillae, renal pelvis, or ureter. The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen to occur in all age groups. The male to female ratio is 3:2.

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Multiple Sclerosis

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - May 15, 2013, Volume 87, Number 10
Número: 2866 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 17:49

Multiple sclerosis is characterized by central nervous system lesions causing neurologic dysfunction and other conditions, such as fatigue, pain, depression, and anxiety.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - January 15, 2013, Volume 87, Number 2
Número: 2865 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 17:46

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is excessive worry and tension about everyday events, on most days for at least six months, to the extent that there is distress or difficulty in performing day-to-day tasks. However, diagnosing GAD accurately can be difficult.

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Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - October 1, 2013, Volume 88, Number 7
Número: 2864 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 17:46

Approximately one in 100 pregnancies is ectopic, with the conceptus usually implanting in the fallopian tube. Some tubal ectopic pregnancies resolve spontaneously, but others continue to grow and lead to rupture of the tube

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Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - November 15, 2013 Volume 88, Number 10
Número: 2863 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 17:39

Chronic suppurative otitis media causes recurrent or persistent discharge (otorrhea) through a perforation in the tympanic membrane, and can lead to thickening of the middle ear mucosa and mucosal polyps. It usually occurs as a complication of persistent acute otitis media (AOM) with perforation in childhood

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Acute Asthma and Other Recurrent Wheezing Disorders in Children

Clinical Evidence Handbook
American Family Physician - July 15, 2013 Volume 88, Number 2
Número: 2862 / Publicado em 18/01/2015 - 17:34

Not all acute wheezing is caused by asthma or bronchospasm, particularly in children younger than 2 years. If bronchodilators do not improve symptoms, alternative diagnoses (e.g., infection, foreign body) should be considered. Although no evidence exists to support the use of oxygen in acute asthma, it is known to be effective and should be administered when oxygen saturation levels fall below 94% in all cases of acute asthma.

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